Type 2 Diabetes: Definition, Symptoms, Causes, and Treatment

What Are The Lifestyle Changes to Treat Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus)?

Type 2 diabetes is a condition that can be treated and maintained by making lifestyle changes. Home remedies can help you deal with type 2 diabetes, including:

  • Keep your blood sugar level normal with a target of fasting blood sugar (GDP) <100 mg / dL and blood sugar 2 hours after meals (post prandial) <140 mg / dL.
  • Regular exercise and a healthy diet especially diabetes
  • Try to have a normal weight with a target body mass index of 18.5– <23
  • Eat a healthy diet: fibrous food, vegetables, fruit, low sugar, low fat, and foods with white flour.
  • Go to an ophthalmologist every year and dentist twice a year
  • Contact your doctor if you cannot eat or drink because of vomiting
  • Do not smoke
  • Contact your doctor if you feel weak after taking blood sugar control medication
  • Contact your doctor if your blood sugar level is suddenly abnormal

In addition, foot care is very important in diabetics because one of the complications that often occurs is that the feet are numb or numb so often diabetics are not aware of any injuries to the legs. Injuries to diabetics need special attention and treatment and if not treated immediately can cause an infection that often leads to amputation, even death.

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Foot Care That You Can Do Independently Is as Follows:

  • Always wear footwear, including in sand and in water
  • Check your feet every day on a regular basis, for example every before going to bed, to see if there are flaky, reddish or injured skin
  • Check footwear before wearing. Are there gravel or other objects that can cause injury.
  • Cut your nails regularly
  • Keep your feet clean and not wet. If the skin is dry, use a moisturizer.
  • Shoes cannot be too narrow or loose. Don’t use high heels.
  • If there is callus (calluses) or fish eyes, thin it regularly.
  • Do not use pillows or bottles of hot water or stones for the feet. The numb legs cannot feel heat or pain so that if there is a burn or a scratch, you are most likely not aware of it.


Very high blood sugar levels can cause damage to blood vessels, nerves, and organs of the body. Diabetes is a chronic disease that develops gradually, until eventually it can trigger a number of complications if not handled properly. Here are a number of complications commonly experienced by diabetics.

  • Cardiovascular disease. Diabetics have a higher risk for heart disease, stroke, atherosclerosis, and high blood pressure.
  • Nerve damage or neuropathy. Excessive blood sugar levels can damage nerves and fine blood vessels. This condition can cause the appearance of a tingling or painful sensation that usually starts from the tips of your fingers and toes, then spreads to other parts of the body. Neuropathy in the digestive system can trigger nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, or constipation.
  • Damage to the leg organ. Neuropathy or obstruction of blood flow in the legs of diabetics is likely to increase the risk of foot health complications that are usually overdue. About 10 percent of diabetics have serious infections due to small cuts or scratches on the legs. Symptoms of foot complications that must be watched are swelling, skin that feels hot when touched, and wounds that do not heal.
  • Eye damage, especially the retina. Retinopathy occurs when problems occur in the blood vessels in the retina that can result in blindness if left unchecked. Glaucoma and cataracts also include complications that may occur in diabetics.
  • Kidney damage. The kidneys have millions of fine blood vessels that filter waste from the blood. If the fine arteries are blocked or leaked, the performance of your kidneys can decrease. Severe damage to the kidneys can cause kidney failure which requires dialysis (dialysis process) or even kidney transplantation.
  • Sexual dysfunction. Damage to fine blood vessels and nerves in male diabetics (especially smokers) can lead to erectile dysfunction. In women with diabetes, this complication may be decreased sexual satisfaction, lack of sex drive, vaginal dryness, or failure to reach orgasm.
  • Skin disorders. Diabetes will make the sufferer vulnerable to skin diseases such as fungal and bacterial infections.
  • Miscarriage or stillbirth. High blood sugar levels can harm the mother and fetus. The risk of miscarriage and stillbirth will increase if gestational diabetes is not treated immediately. Blood sugar levels that are not maintained early in pregnancy can also increase the risk of birth defects. Pregnant women who suffer from diabetes are encouraged to monitor their blood sugar levels regularly.