Type 2 Diabetes: Definition, Symptoms, Causes, and Treatment

What Causes Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus?

Type 2 diabetes is a condition that can be caused by certain things. When you have type 2 diabetes, your fat, liver, and muscle cells don’t respond to insulin properly. This is called insulin resistance (resistance to insulin). As a result, cells cannot receive blood sugar to be processed into energy.

When sugar cannot enter cells, blood sugar levels rise high. This is called hyperglycemia.

Causes of Insulin Defense Include:

  • Being overweight or obese: Increasing fat makes the body experience insulin resistance, making it difficult to use insulin properly.
  • Heredity or if the family has a medical history of diabetes can also affect. Genetic factors are also the factors that cause type 2 diabetes.

Risk Factors


Who As at Risk For Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus?

Type 2 diabetes is a condition that is not fully understood by experts. The reason is, some people experience an increased risk of type 2 diabetes and some don’t. However, there are some things that clearly increase risk factors for type 2 diabetes, such as:

  • Weight. Being overweight is a major risk factor for type 2 diabetes. The thicker the fat tissue, the cells are increasingly immune to insulin. But not only overweight people are at risk for type 2 diabetes.
  • Fat distribution. If your body stores fat in the abdomen, your risk of developing type 2 diabetes is greater than if your body stores fat in other parts, such as the hips and thighs.
  • Inactive lifestyle. The more passive you are, the greater your risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Physical activity helps you control your weight, uses glucose as energy, and makes your cells more sensitive to insulin.
  • Family medical history. The risk of developing type 2 diabetes is greater if your parents or siblings have type 2 diabetes.
  • Race. While it’s still unclear why, most people from a race – including black, Hispanic, American and Asian-American – are more likely to be at risk for type 2 diabetes than white race.
  • Age. The risk of type 2 diabetes increases as you get older, especially after age 45 years. This may be because people at this age tend to be less mobile, lose muscle mass, and gain weight as you get older. In addition, the aging process also results in a decrease in the function of pancreatic beta cells as an insulin producer. However, type 2 diabetes also increases dramatically in adolescents, and early adulthood.
  • Prediabetes. Prediabetes is a condition in which your blood sugar levels are higher than normal levels, but not high enough to be classified as diabetes. If not treated, prediabetes can continue to type 2 diabetes.
  • Diabetes pregnancy. If you experience diabetes during pregnancy, your risk of developing type 2 diabetes increases. If you give birth to a baby weighing more than 4 kilograms, your baby is also at risk of developing type 2 diabetes in his adult life.
  • Polycystic Ovary Syndrome. For women who experience this syndrome – which is irregular menstrual periods, excessive hair growth, and obesity – the risk of diabetes will increase.
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