Type 1 Diabetes : Definition, Causes, and Treatment

High blood sugar levels can cause damage to blood vessels, nerves, and organs of the body. Therefore, diabetes can trigger a number of complications if not controlled properly. Increased blood sugar levels that are insignificant and do not trigger any symptoms can cause long-term effects.

Diabetes Retinopathy

Diabetes can cause damage to blood vessels in the retina (retinopathy). These blood vessels can be blocked, leaked, or randomly grown, blocking light from reaching the retina. This complication can result in blindness if left unchecked.

Checking your eyes every year will help early detection of retinopathy so that it can be treated as soon as possible.

Diabetic retinopathy detected early can be treated with laser surgery. However, this procedure is only to maintain the power of sight and not cure.

Diabetes Neuropathy (Nerve Damage)

Excess blood glucose can damage fine blood vessels and nerves. This can trigger a tingling or painful sensation that usually starts from the tips of your fingers and toes, then spreads to other parts of the body. Neuropathy that attacks the digestive system can cause nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, or constipation.

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Something we are usually aware of late, namely damage to the nerves or obstruction of blood flow in the legs can increase the risk of foot health complications. If left unchecked, small cuts and scratches in the legs of diabetics can develop into serious infections.

Patients who have experienced nerve damage should check their foot condition every day. If there is a change, consult a doctor. The doctor’s condition is also recommended at least once a year. Complications in the feet that you must be aware of are:

  • Wounds that do not heal.
  • The skin feels hot when touched.

Heart Disease and Stroke

Diabetics have a five times higher risk of developing heart disease or stroke. Blood sugar levels that are not balanced and left for a long time will increase the risk of atherosclerosis, which is narrowing of blood vessel flow which usually occurs due to accumulation of cholesterol. This complication has the following risks:

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Inhibits blood flow to the heart and causes angina attacks (known as wind sitting). An angina attack is indicated by a feeling of chest pain.

Causes a heart attack or stroke because it increases the risk of blockage of blood vessels in the heart or brain.

Diabetes Nephropathy (Kidney Damage)

The kidneys have millions of fine blood vessels that filter waste from the blood. If the fine blood vessels are blocked or leaked, your kidney’s performance will decrease.

Severe damage to the kidneys can cause kidney failure. If you experience kidney failure, you will need dialysis (dialysis) or even a kidney transplant.

Sexual Dysfunction

Diabetes can damage fine blood vessels and nerves. Therefore, male diabetics (especially those who smoke) can experience erectile dysfunction. This disorder can usually be treated with medication.

Meanwhile, female diabetics also have the potential to experience sexual dysfunction, such as decreased sexual satisfaction, lack of sex drive, failure to reach orgasm, pain during intercourse, and a dry vagina. Handling in diabetics women who experience a lack of vaginal fluids or feel pain while having sex can use lubricants or gels.

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Miscarriage And Stillbirth in The Fetus

This disease can harm both the mother and fetus. The risk of miscarriage and stillbirth will increase if the diabetes of pregnant women is not handled carefully. Blood sugar levels that are not well maintained in the early pregnancy of the mother can also increase the risk of birth defects.

Pregnant women who suffer from diabetes are advised to check their diabetes condition regularly to the hospital or clinic. This routine consultation will make it easier for doctors to monitor the mother’s blood sugar levels and control the dose of insulin that must be given.