Irritable Bowel Syndrome

Irritable Bowel Syndrome

DefinitionĀ Irritable Bowel Syndrome


Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common long-term disorder of the digestive system. This disease attacks the large intestine for a long time, with symptoms that recur from time to time.

IBS is more commonly experienced by young adult women who are less than 50 years old. Every relapse, IBS can occur for several days or it could be several months, and this condition can be triggered by stressful conditions, certain foods, or hormonal changes (such as during menstrual periods).

Symptoms


Some symptoms that might occur are:

  • Diarrhea or constipation, both of which sometimes appear alternately.
  • Bloated.
  • The stomach feels sore or cramps. These symptoms will usually decrease after defecation.
  • Feces with mucus.
  • Headache.
  • Nausea.
  • Often belching and throwing gas.
  • Fatigue.
  • Back pain.
  • Get full quickly.
  • Appetite goes down.
  • Hot feeling in the chest.

People who experience IBS will experience a time when these symptoms can get worse, gradually improve, or disappear completely. It is advisable to see a doctor immediately if you also experience weight loss for no apparent reason, defecate bleeding, palpitations, tightness, or a lump in the abdomen.

Causes and Trigger Factors


Certainly not known causes of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Some factors that are thought to trigger IBS are:

  • Infection in the digestive tract.
  • Changes in the condition of normal bacteria in the small intestine.
  • Disorders in brain function when sending signals to the intestine.
  • Foods that are too fast or too slowly digested in the digestive tract, causing diarrhea or constipation.
  • Certain foods or drinks that are difficult to digest, for example those with high levels of acid, fat, sugar, or carbohydrates.
  • Changes in hormone levels or other chemicals in the body that play a role in transmitting nerve signals.
  • Mental health disorders, such as panic disorder, anxiety, depression, and stress.
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Diagnosis


Doctors can suspect a patient suffering from irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) if there are complaints of digestion, which can be abdominal pain, flatulence, or changes in bowel habits and stool form, which has lasted for at least three months.

There is no specific examination to diagnose IBS, but doctors need to do some follow-up examinations to rule out other possibilities, including:

  • Blood test. Aim to find out if there are other conditions that have similar symptoms, such as celiac disease or lactose intolerance.
  • Fecal sampling. Feces are examined for bacterial or parasitic infections.
  • Imaging and endoscopy. X-rays, CT scans, or endoscopes that use camera hoses, either through the mouth or rectum, can see the condition of the gastrointestinal tract and detect the possibility of infection or other structural abnormalities.
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Treatment


There is no cure or a specific diet that is suitable for all people with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). However, there are several ways you can reduce symptoms, so people with IBS can live normally, which is the goal of IBS treatment. Some of these methods include:

  • Set diet and type of food.
    • Eating small portions of food.
    • Not late to eat.
    • Reduce consumption of alcohol, caffeine, and soda.
    • Adequate fluid needs by drinking, at least 8 glasses of water.
    • Avoid fatty foods and canned foods.
    • Eating fruit does not exceed 3 servings (one serving is around 80 g).
    • Chewing food well, not in a hurry.
  • Adjust the type of food with the complaints experienced.
    • Bloated. Avoid foods that can lead to increased gas in the digestive tract, such as nuts, cabbage, cauliflower, broccoli, and also gum.
    • Diarrhea. Reduce consumption of foods high in fiber such as wheat, and foods containing artificial sweeteners such as sorbitol.
    • Constipation. Increase consumption of fiber, such as vegetables, fruit, and wheat. This process should be done in stages, not suddenly, because it will make complaints worse.
  • Exercise regularly. Sports such as aerobics, brisk walking or cycling can increase intestinal movements and reduce stress levels.
  • Reduce stress levels. Besides exercise, meditation and massage can reduce stress. If complaints do not improve, psychotherapy can be done.
  • Eating probiotics, which are supplements that can help nourish the digestive system by restoring the balance of normal bacteria in the intestine naturally.
  • Taking medicine. Some medicines that can be used in IBS sufferers:
    • Anticholinergics (example: hyoscine butylbromide).
    • Antidiare (example: loperamide).
    • Tricyclic antidepressants (example: amitriptyline).
    • Laxative.
    • Fiber supplement.
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Complications


Diarrhea and chronic constipation arising from irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) can lead to hemorrhoids or hemorrhoids. In addition, IBS is also associated with mental disorders such as anxiety and depression. This anxiety and depression can even cause IBS to get worse. In some cases, patients with moderate to severe IBS have poor quality of life, especially in work productivity.