Diabetes: Definition, Symptoms, And Types

Diabetes: Definition, Symptoms, And Types


Diabetes (diabetes mellitus) is a long-term or chronic disease characterized by blood sugar levels (glucose) that are far above normal. Glucose is very important for our health because it is the main source of energy for the brain and the cells that make up the muscles and tissues in our body. This disease has two main types, namely type 1 and type 2 diabetes.


It is very important for us to know the initial symptoms of diabetes. Good for those who are at high risk or those who feel healthy and have no history or the potential for diabetes.

Type 1 diabetes can develop rapidly in a few weeks, even just a few days. Whereas many type 2 diabetics do not realize that they have had diabetes for years because the symptoms tend to be non-specific. Some symptoms of type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes include:

  • Often feel thirsty.
  • Frequent urination, especially at night.
  • Extreme hunger.
  • Weight loss without a clear cause.
  • Reduced muscle mass.
  • There are ketones in urine. Ketones are a byproduct of muscle metabolism and fat that occurs when insufficient insulin production.
  • Fatigue.
  • Blurred view.
  • Long-healed wounds.
  • Frequent infections, such as the gums, skin, vagina, or urinary tract.
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If you experience these symptoms, immediately consult a doctor. Detection as early as possible allows us to prevent our diabetes from getting worse.

Effect of Insulin and Diabetes Hormones

All cells in the human body need glucose to work normally. The level of sugar in the blood is usually controlled by the hormone insulin produced by the pancreas, which is the organ located behind the stomach.

But pancreatic organs belonging to diabetics are not able to produce insulin according to the body’s needs. Without insulin, body cells cannot absorb and process glucose into energy.

Overview of Type 1 Diabetes

People with type 1 diabetes are very dependent on insulin because the patient’s immune system will attack and destroy the pancreatic cells that produce insulin. This triggers an increase in glucose levels resulting in damage to the body’s organs. Until now, the cause behind type 1 diabetes is not known with certainty.